Image00205Brussels, 9.3.2015 SWD(2015) 50 final  Report on the progress in implementation of the Water Framework Directive 

Programmes of Measures Accompanying the document 

Cyprus should:


  • Provide a more detailed analysis of pressures and impacts, as well as an improved risk assessment based on the improvement of the monitoring network. The RBMPs should be explicit about the impacts related to each significant pressure and provide quantitative figures on the scale of the pressures that need to be reduced, to reach WFD objectives. Also, the targeting of the measures should be explicit in terms of their type and extent, to ensure that pressures are addressed adequately.
  • Develop fully the economic analysis of water use, including the calculation of environmental and resource costs, and how the cost effectiveness analysis influenced the selection of measures.
  • ncrease the use of EU funds to finance PoMs.
  • Utilise metering (especially for agriculture) to better determine quantitative status of WBs and to secure their long-term protection because abstraction of groundwater is a significant pressure in Cyprus, mainly due to unregulated self-abstractions and permits not set consistent with environmental needs.
  • Enforce the Law for groundwater status improvement (the application deadline for non-licensed boreholes was extended until June 2014 for farmers).
  • Promote more efficient irrigation networks and maximization of water reuse.
  • Consider switching to less water-intensive agricultural products, which can often provide a better economic return.
  • Review the degree to which the existing measures to implement the Nitrates Directive (ND) are sufficient to address agricultural pressures and concentrate efforts on ensuring farmers understand their obligations in this regard and can finance the necessary investments. Additionally Cyprus should ensure basic measures as per article 11.3.h of the WFD are put in place to control other diffuse pollutants – e.g. phosphate, pesticides, particulate matter. These measures should be specific, have a clear legal basis, and include appropriate advice, monitoring and inspection regimes to ensure their effective implementation. In addition to the basic measures, it should be set out clearly what supplementary measures will be needed to bridge the gap to good status and which of these measures will be included in the second POM and what funding sources will be used to deliver these. Clear references to expectations for the Rural Development Programs (RDPs) in this regard (and to other funding sources) are expected. Irrigation investments made in the Rural Development Programmes must be carried out to ensure water saved goes back to restore depleted aquifers.
  • Develop further the hydromorphological assessment methods so that improved biological monitoring results will allow for better risk assessment and more targeted measures concerning hydromorphological pressures. Cyprus should be more ambitious in 2nd RBMPs in relation to hydromorphological measures.
  • Consider and prioritise the use of green infrastructure and/or natural water retention measures that provide a range of environmental (improvements in water quality, increase of water infiltration and thus aquifer recharge, habitat conservation etc.), social and economic benefits which can be in many cases more cost-effective than grey infrastructure.
  • Accelerate implementation of the UWWTD measures, availing of EU funds as collecting systems and treatment plants are not fully operational (62,0% of the population equivalent according to 2010 data).
  • Present in the 2nd RBMPs improved identification of pressures from chemical pollutants on the basis of the inventory of priority substances emissions (established since June 2013)


AA Annual Average
APSFR Areas with Potential Significant Flood Risk
AWB Artificial Water Body
BD Birds Directive (79/409/EEC)
BWD Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC)
CAP Common Agricultural Policy
CEA Cost Effectiveness Analysis
CIS Common Implementation Strategy
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
COM European Commission
DIS Data Information Sharing
DWD Drinking Water Directive (80/778/EEC) as amended by
Directive (98/83/EC)
EARDF European Agricultural Rural Development Fund
EC European Commission
Eflows Ecological Flows
EFTA European Free Trade Association
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (85/337/EEC)
EQS Environmental Quality Standard
EU European Union
FD Floods Directive (2007/60/EC)
FHRM Flood Hazard and Risk Maps
FRMP Flood Risk Management Plan
GEP Good Ecological Potential
GES Good Ecological Status
GIS Geographical Information System
GWD Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC)
HD Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC)
HMWB Heavily Modified Water Body
HPP Hydro Power Plant

IED Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU)
IMP_POM Progress on the implementation of the Programmes of Measures
IPPCD Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (96/61/EC)
KTM Key Type of Measure
MAC Maximum Allowable Concentration
MS Member State
MSFD Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC)
N Nitrogen
NAP Nitrates Action Programme
ND Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC)
NVZ Nitrate Vulnerable Zones
OP Operational Programme
P Phosphorus
PA Partnership Agreement 
pe Population equivalent
PFRA Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment
PoM Programme of Measures
PPPD Plant Protection Products Directive (91/414/EEC)
RBD River Basin District
RBMP River Basin Management Plan
RBSP River Basin Specific Pollutant
RDP Rural Development Programme
SCG Strategic Coordination Group Seveso Major Accidents (Seveso) Directive (96/82/EC)
SIIF Structured Information and Implementation Framework
SWD Staff Working Document
UWWT Urban Waste Water Treatment
UWWTD Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC)
WB Water Body
WFD Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC)
WFS Web Features Services
WISE Water Information System for Europe